Solved questions for OEM 301


Question Number 1

[February 2015]

Write short notes to demonstrate your understanding of the following concepts

  • Employee relations

Refers to the total relationship between an employer (and their representatives) and the employee (and their representatives) in regard to the establishment of conditions of employment. In the past, the term ‘industrial relations’ has been used to describe this relationship; however, this has largely been replaced by the broader term ‘workplace relations’. Although the two areas are similar, industrial relations usually refers to the resolution of conflict between employers and employees, while employee relations is an approach that incorporates all the issues in the employer–employee relationship in the workplace, including recruitment, equal opportunity, training and development, and organizational structure.

Employee relations refer to the collective relationships that an employer has with its employees. These relationships may be with the entire employee group, or with smaller groups within it, but they are always with groups of employees. Employee relations is about the relationship between employees and employer that is conducted through communication with trade unions, staff associations or representatives of employees, or directly with groups of employees.

  • Personnel management can be defined as obtaining, using and maintaining a satisfied workforce. It is a significant part of management concerned with employees at work and with their relationship within the organization.

According to Flippo, “Personnel management is the planning, organizing, compensation, integration and maintenance of people for the purpose of contributing to organizational, individual and societal goals.” According to Brech, “Personnel Management is that part which is primarily concerned with human resource of organization.”

Personnel management was replaced with human resource management

  • Organizational development is the system-wide application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies, structures and processes for improving organization’s effectiveness. The objective of organizational development is to improve the organization’s capacity to handle its internal and external functioning and relationships.

Richard Beckhard (1969), an early leader in the field of OD: Organization development is an effort (1) planned, (2) organizationwide, and (3) managed from the top, to (4) increase organization effectiveness and health through (5) planned interventions in the organization’s “processes,” using behavioral-science knowledge’ Organization development is the process of increasing organizational effectiveness and facilitating personal and organizational change through the use of interventions driven by social and behavioral science knowledge. 

Question number 2

[September 2014]

  1. Define groups as used in management
  2. What is the relevance of group dynamics in organizations such as schools?

A group is a collection of individuals who have relations to one another that make them interdependent to some significant degree.

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Solved questions for OEM 303


  1. Project objectives are considered to be “SMART”. Substantiate.

A project is a multitask job that has performance, time, cost and scope requirements and that is done at only one time.

(Lewis, 2006) states that a project should have definite starting and ending points, a budget, a clearly defined scope or magnitude of work to be done and specific performance requirements that must be met. Hence, the project is considered to be a non repetitive job.

A project is a non-repetitive one-of-a-kind activity normally with discrete time, financial and technical performance goals. Normally a complex effort, usually less than 3 years in duration and it is made up of interrelated tasks performed by various organizations.

Project objectives consist of a precise list of the outcomes or the final results one may expect from a project. The project objectives define the target status at the end of the project reaching of which is considered necessary for the achievement of planned benefits.

Project objectives are meant to be realistic targets for the program or project and are steps toward attaining the goal.

SMART Objectives refers to an acronym built around the five leading measures of a strong program. This acronym can be very helpful in writing objects that can be employed to evaluate the quality of programs proposed and carried out.

Project objectives are considered to be SMART because each objective must have the following characteristics.

Specific What exactly are we going to do, with or for whom?

The program states a specific outcome, or a precise objective to be accomplished. The outcome is stated in numbers, percentages, frequency, reach, scientific outcome, etc. The objective is clearly defined.

Measurable Is it measurable & can WE measure it?

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The concept of policy is not well known to majority of Tanzanians. While most of them think of the term as the jargon prevalent to academicians and government workers, others claim to ‘not do policy’ owing to its great irrelevance to their work-or, for that matter their lives.

The truth, however, is that policy is prerequisite for functioning of any educational institution, different government sectors and government in general. Policies are essentials with which education system and government relies to in order to serve the county.

In Tanzanian context the role of ‘public policy’ cannot be underestimated. Public policy control transportation systems, it determines the quality of services provided, it regulates taxes and even control people’s social lives. The significance of policy is further seen in Tanzanian educational system where educational policies are constantly being tailored to conform to the changing knowledge demands and labor market.

Public policy, therefore, affects us both profoundly and pervasively. It influences virtually every aspect of our lives. This chapter introduces the concept of policy. It further delineates the significance of policy in deriving efficiency to different sectors.

The meaning of policy

Guba, E. G. (1983) in “The effect of definitions of policy on the nature and outcomes of policy analysis” provides several definitions of policy

  1. Policy as an assertion of intents or goals.
  2. Policy as the accumulated standing decisions of a governing body, by which it regulates, controls, promotes services and otherwise influences matters within its sphere of authority.
  3. Policy as a guide to discretionary action
  4. Policy as a strategy undertaken to solve or ameliorate a problem
  5. Policy as a sanctioned behavior, formally through authoritative decisions or informally through expectations and acceptance established over (sanctified by) time.
  6. Policy as the norm of conduct characterized by consistency and regularity in some substantive action area.
  7. Policy as the output the policy making system, the cumulative effect of all the actions, decisions and behaviors of the millions of people who work in bureaucracies. It occurs, takes place, and is made at every point in the policy cycle from agenda setting to policy impact.
  8. Policy is the effect of policy making and policy implementing system as it is experienced by the client.

Summarizing above points, a policy can be defined as a statement of intent or a plan of action adopted by an individual or a social group. A policy is a projected program consisting of desired objectives and the means to achieve them

Haddad defines policy an explicit or implicit single decision or group of decisions which may set out directives for guiding future decisions, initiate or retard action, or guide implementation of previous decisions (Haddad, 1995:18). According to Haddad policy is a key to educational planning.

Characteristics of a policy

What constitute a good policy is normally believed to have the following attributes

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